CONSTITUTION

CONSTITUTION OF THE ASIAN LAW AND SOCIETY ASSOCIATION
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Article 1. Name of the Association
The name of the Association is the Asian Law and Society Association. Its abbreviation is the ALSA.

Article 2. Purpose of the Association
The purpose of the Association is to foster socio-legal scholarship on Asia and disseminate its findings to the broader community of socio-legal scholars.

Article 3. Executive Office
1. The Executive Office of the Association is located at Waseda University Law School, Tokyo, Japan.
2. The Executive Office shall be managed by an Executive Officer appointed by the Board of Trustees as set forth in Article 5, Paragraph 4.

Article 4. Interim Board of Trustees
1. The Planning Committee of the Collaborative Research Network 33 on East Asian Law and Society of the Law and Society Association shall serve as the Interim Board of Trustees of the Association until December 31, 2015.
2. The Interim Board of Trustees shall nominate candidates for the first election of Officers and Trustees to be held in November 2015.

Article 5. Officers
1. President:
(1) The President shall represent the Association and convene and chair general assemblies of members of the Association (hereinafter “Business Meetings”) and Board Meetings of the Association.
(2) The term of the President is two years.
(3) The President may not be re-elected.
(3) The President shall be an ex-officio member of the Board of Trustees.
(4) The President-Elect shall assume the position of the President in the event of death or resignation of the President for the remainder of the prior President’s term and an additional term of two years.
2. President-Elect
(1) The President-Elect shall be elected for the term of two years.
(2) The President-Elect shall be an ex-officio member of the Board of Trustees.
(3) The President-Elect shall assume the position of the President upon the expiration of the term of the prior President.
3. Immediate Past President:
(1) The Immediate Past President shall be an ex-officio member of the Board of Trustees for the term of two years.
(2) In the event that the position of the Immediate Past-President became vacant due to death or resignation, the vacancy shall not be filled.
4. Executive Officer, Associate Executive Officer and Assistant Executive Officer
(1) The Board of Trustees shall select an institution as the Executive Office and appoint its faculty member as the Executive Officer, either for an unspecified term or a specified term. The Board of Trustees may terminate the Executive Officer at any time, regardless of term.
(2) The Executive Officer shall be responsible for all operations of the Executive Office, including maintaining the membership directory, conducting elections, managing bank accounts under the name of the Executive Officer, maintaining a website, preparing annual financial reports, publishing an online newsletter, and handling other matters required for the daily operation of the Association.
(3) The Executive Officer shall record minutes of Business Meetings and Board Meetings. These minutes shall be preserved at the Executive Office.
(3) The Executive Officer shall be an ex-officio member of the Board of Trustees.
(4) The Board of Trustees may appoint Associate Executive Officers and Assistant Executive Officers as necessary, either for an unspecified term or specified term.
(5) The Executive Officer may delegate part of her/his functions to the Associate Executive Officers and the Assistant Executive Officers.
(6) The Associate Executive Officers and the Assistant Executive Officers shall attend Board Meetings as observers.
(7) In the event that the position of Executive Officer, Associate Executive Officer, or Assistant Executive Officer became vacant due to death, resignation, or election as the President-Elect or a Trustee, the Board of Trustees shall fill the vacancy for an unspecified or specified term.

Article 6. Trustees
1. The Association shall have twelve Trustees.
2. The Trustees’ term is three years. Trustees may not be re-elected for consecutive terms.
3. In the event that a position of Trustee became vacant for death, resignation, or other reason, the vacancy shall not be filled.

Article 7. Board of Trustees
1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of ex-officio members and elected Trustees.
2. The Board Meeting shall be held at least once a year at the time of the Annual Meeting. Board Meetings may also be held at other times and manners, including teleconference, online and in other formats decided by the Board.
3. The Board of Trustees shall have the power to decide the following and all other matters required for the operation of the Association.
(1) Approval of the annual budget and financial statement.
(2) Categories of the membership of the Association, amount of dues, and member privileges.
(3) Venue, general theme, and Chair of the Local Organizing Committee of an Annual Meeting.
(4) Nomination of candidates for elected Officers and Trustees.
(5) Appointment of the Executive Officer, Associate Executive Officers, Assistant Executive Officers, and Auditors.
(6) Enactment and amendment of bylaws.
(7) Proposal of amendment of this Constitution to members of the Association.
4. The quorum of the Board Meeting shall be a half of its members.
5. Decisions of the Board Meeting shall require consent by a majority of its members in attendance.
7. The Board of Trustees shall have at least the following three committees within it, while the Board of Trustees may establish other committees by its decision.
(1) The Nomination Committee shall nominate candidates for elected Officers and Trustees to the Board of Trustees. The number of candidates shall be a maximum of twice the number of positions to be filled at any election.
(2) The Program Committee shall recommend venues for Annual Meetings to the Board of Trustees at least three years in advance. The Program Committee shall also nominate the Chair of the Local Organizing Committee, propose the general theme with the Chair of the Local Organizing Committee, and assist the Local Organizing Committee.
(3) The Publication Committee shall explore possibilities to publish papers presented at Annual Meetings.

Article 8. Elections of Officers and Trustees
1. Elections shall be conducted online by the Executive Office in November and results shall be announced on December 1st, Japan time.
2. The Executive Office shall adopt an online voting system that maintains total anonymity.
3. Members of the Association with good standing as of October 1st, Japan time, may be nominated as candidates and shall have the right to vote. The Executive Office shall circulate the list of eligible members immediately after October 1st. The Executive Office shall also circulate lists of candidates for elective offices after receiving instructions from the Board of Trustees.
4. Members of the Association shall be allowed at least two weeks for the online voting.
5. Notwithstanding Article 6, Paragraph 2 of this Constitution, the first election in November 2015 shall elect the following Officers and Trustees.
(1) President.
(2) President-Elect.
(3) Twelve Trustees.
6. The second election shall be conducted in November 2017, and the President-Elect shall be elected.
7. The third election shall be conducted in November 2018, and twelve Trustees shall be elected.
8. The later elections shall be conducted in the way that is required each time.

Article 9. Auditors
1. The Board of Trustees shall appoint two members of the Association as Auditors for the term of two years.
2. The Auditors shall review financial records and certify annual financial reports.
3. The Auditors shall attend Board Meetings as observers.
4. In the event that a position of the Auditor became vacant by death or resignation, the Board shall appoint an Auditor for the remainder of the term.

Article 10. Beginning and End of the Term of Officers, Trustees, and Auditors
The term of Officers, Trustees, and Auditors shall begin on January 1st and end on December 31st of the year when the respective term expires.

Article 11. Fiscal Year, Budget, and Account Settlement
1. The Fiscal Year of the Association shall be the calendar year.
2. The Executive Officer shall present an annual report about the account settlement for the previous fiscal year for approval by the Board of Trustees in January.
3. The President shall present a budget for the given fiscal year for the approval by the Board of Trustees in January.

Article 12. Membership and Dues
1. The Executive Office shall establish an online system for member registration and dues payment, immediately after the Fourth East Asian Law and Society Conference in August 2015.
2. Membership of the Association shall be available on a calendar year basis upon payment of applicable dues, except that the membership of those who joined in 2015 shall be valid until the end of 2016.
3. Categories of membership of the Association and applicable amounts of dues shall be decided by the Board Meeting after hearing opinions of members of the Association at a Business Meeting.
4. Dues may be used for the following purposes.
(1) To maintain the Executive Office.
(2) To subsidize Annual Meetings.
(3) Other purposes approved by the Board of Trustees.

Article 13. Privileges of Members of the Association
1. The Executive Office shall give each member of the Association a member ID.
2. Members of the Association shall enjoy the following privileges.
(1) The right to vote in elections of Officers and Trustees.
(2) The right to attend Annual Meetings with a reduced registration fee.
(3) The right to vote on proposed amendment to this Constitution.
(4) The right to express their views and opinions at Business Meetings and to vote on matters to be decided by the Business Meeting.
(5) The right to obtain a discounted, individual bundled subscription, including online and printed versions, to the Asian Journal of Law and Society (AJLS), at the rate approved by the Board Meeting.

Article 14. Annual Meeting and Business Meeting
1. The Board of Trustees shall select the Venue of the Annual Meeting and the Chair of the Local Organizing Committee at least three years in advance.
2. The Chair of the Local Organizing Committee shall appoint its members.
3. The Local Organizing Committee shall decide the exact timing of the annual meeting.
4. The general theme shall be proposed by the Program Committee and the Chair of the Local Organizing Committee to the Board of Trustees for its approval.
5. The Local Organizing Committee shall be responsible for financial matters and academic contents of the annual meeting.
6. The Board of Trustees may allocate a fund to the Local Organizing Committee from the fund of the Association.
7. Business Meetings shall be held during Annual Meetings. There shall be no quorum required for Business Meetings.

Article 15. Amendment of This Constitution
1. The Board of Trustees holds sole authority to propose Amendments to this Constitution. Such proposals must be placed to members of the Association through an online voting system.
2. When an amendment to this Constitution is placed to members of the Association through an online voting system, approval of such amendment requires the affirmative vote of two thirds of members of the Association who have voted Provided that not less than 20 percent of the members of the Association have voted through aforesaid online voting system.

Adopted, August 6, 2015.